Abstract:Peganum harmala L., also known as Syrian rue or Pègano, is a herbaceous plant belonging to the Zygohpyllaceae family, and is widely used in traditional medicine. The chemical composition of essential oils of P. harmala seeds from ﬁve different regions of Northern Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya There are several reports in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological effects for peganum harmala or aspand such as sedative anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal. Some people believe that can be used fo Peganum harmala L. eFlore, la flore électronique de Tela Botanica. Description Description de Coste Projet de numérisation de la flore de L'Abbé Coste par le réseau Tela botanica - 2011-Description Baseflor Julve, Ph., 2020 ff. - Baseflor. Index botanique, écologique et chorologique de la flore de France. Version : 27 avril 2020. https. Peganum harmalaL. (Zygophyllaceae) is a herb native to dry area from east Mediterranean to northern India and is widely spread in Iran (Branch, 2012)
Peganum harmala, or Syrian Rue, has pharmacologically active compounds including several alkaloids with antiprotozoal properties, which are found especially in the seeds and the roots peganum harmala dans le Centre Anti Poison et de Pharmacovigilance du Maroc afin d'en décrire les caractéristiques sociodémographiques, cliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutives et de mettre le point sur la toxicité de cette plante utilisée en thérapeutique. PARTIE BIBLIOGRAPHIQUE . I. Etude bibliographique 1. Présentation de la plante Le Peganum harmala L, connu sous le nom de Harmel. Le Peganum harmala, aussi appelé harmal, rue de Syrie  ou rue sauvage ,  est une espèce de plantes vivaces de la famille des Zygophyllaceae, à fleurs blanc-jaunâtre, utilisée comme plante médicinal
Peganum harmala (Syrian Rue) de nom local Harmal, Harmel est une plante vivace originaire des zones arides de l'Afrique, de la mer méditerranéenne, du moyen orient, de la Turquie, du Pakistan et de l'Inde. Elle est introduite et naturalisée dans des régions du sud-ouest des U.S.A, quelques zones d'Afrique du sud et d'Australie (Bahram et al., L'Harmel reste peu employé de fait qu'il présente des risques de toxicité, cependant les graines servent à soigner les troubles oculaires et à. Keywords: Peganum harmala, phytochemical, alkaloids, acute toxicity, Algeria. 1. Introduction Plants and plant extracts have been used since the dawn of civilization by mankind. The use of ethnobotanical preparations for various reasons justified or not, is still continued by various cultures all around the world. Considering structural and biological diversity of terrestrial plants, they. ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Peganum harmala is used in traditional medicine to treat a number of diseases including cancer. Our preliminary studies show that the alkaloidal extract of PH seed is cytotoxic to several tumor cell lines in vitro and has antitumor effect in a tumor model in vivo. The present investigation was aimed at extending our previous studies in identifying the components. Peganum Harmala. The Peganum harmala (Syrian rue) is a wild growing flowering plant belonging to the Zygophyllacea family and is found abundantly in Middle East and North Africa. From ancient times, it has been claimed to be an important medicinal plant with antibacterial, antifungal, and monoamine oxidase inhibition properties. It has also been known to interact with alpha-2-adrenoceptor subtypes. Its seeds possess hypothermic and hallucinogenic effects, and oral administration showed. Concerning the extraction of the plant substances from Peganum harmala L. seeds, we have adopted the method of Soxhlet advocated by . It permits to obtain excellent results and has a remarkable reputation when it is applied in the vegetable field. This extraction is done using different solvents which are water, ethanol and hexane. The antimicrobial activity of alkaloids taken from P.
Download as PDF. Set alert. About this page. Medicinal and Pharmacological Potential of Harmala (Peganum harmala L.) Seeds. Sarfaraz Khan Marwat, Fazal ur Rehman, in Nuts and Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention, 2011. Human monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) Harmala alkaloids are short-term monoamine oxidase inhibitors. An MAOI acts to inhibit a key enzyme, monoamine oxidase (MAO), in the. Huile de Peganum- Huile de Harmal - 30 ml - 100% Naturel. Reference: REF296. Condition: Nouveau produit. 4,00 € tax incl. tax incl. Quantité. Ajouter au panier. Ajouter à ma liste d'envies . 73 Articles. Tweet Partager Google+ Pinterest . Basé sur 1 avis. Voir les avis. Envoyer à un ami *: *: * Imprimer ; Plus d'infos. Indications . Calme les douleurs de l'arthrite. Anti-spasmes.
Peganum harmala sur l'encyclopédie Wikipédia ; Références [modifier le wikicode] « harmal », dans Émile Littré, Dictionnaire de la langue française, 1872-1877 → consulter cet ouvrage Espagnol [modifier le wikicode] Étymologie [modifier le wikicode] De l'arabe حرمل, harmal de même sens. Nom commun [modifier le wikicode Peganum harmala is used as an analgesic and antiinflammatory agent. In Yemen it was used to treat depression, and it has been established in the laboratory that harmaline, an active ingredient in Peganum harmala, is a central nervous system stimulant and a reversible inhibitor of MAO-A (RIMA), a category of antidepressant Peganum harmala intoxication, a case report Mohammad Moshiri1, Leila Etemad 1, Soheila Javidi1, Anahita Alizadeh 2* Abstract Objective: Peganum harmala (P. harmala), Espand in Persian, has small seeds and has been used in traditional medicine as emmenagogue and an abortifacient. It has various pharmacological effects such as antifungal, antibacterial, hypothermic, anticancer. Peganum harmala (L) connue sous le nom harmal est une plante médicinale de la famille des Zygophyllaceae, largement utilisée en médecine traditionnelle algérienne. Dans le présent travail trois méthodes d'extraction ont été utilisées pour la préparation des différents extraits à partir des grains de cette plante: la décoction, l'extraction des huiles par soxhlet et la. Peganum harmala (Esphand) was chosen to study because of the inhibitory effect of this plant on the M. smegmatis (PTCC 1307) and M. bovis BCG strains revealed in the previous study . The seeds of Peganum harmalawere collected from south east of Golestan province (2750 m - Tash Mountains) thenwas identified in the herbarium of Faculty of Plant Science, Islamic Azad University of Gorgan.
Peganum harmala L. (P. harmala ), also known as Harmal or Syrian rue, is a perennial herbaceous, glabrous plant that grows in semiarid conditions, steppe areas, and sand Peganum harmala is a rich source of b-carboline and quinazoline alkaloids (Kartal et al., 2003). The possible use of P. harmala in modern phyto-indole entheogen preparations is correlated to its b-carboline content: harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine (THH), collectively known as harmala alkaloids, which are mostly found in the seeds and roots. Harmine and harmaline are competitive and. Peganum harmala dries moisture and acts as its resolvant . It has been described as an effective and experienced remedy for the removal of lice and their eggs [13,14]. Among Peganum harmala products, its oil was selected in this study, since it is both recommended in Persian medicine  and is a mechanical assistant in the disposal of eggs given the slippery surface it creates. It also. Peganum harmala L. Jinous Asgarpanah and Fereshteh Ramezanloo Department of Pharmacognosy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran, Iran. Accepted 16 March, 2012 Peganum harmala L. is known as Syrian rue, Wild rue and Harmal. P. harmala extracts are considered important for drug development, because they are reported to have numerous pharmacological activities in. Key words: Peganum harmala , antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, activities, leaves. INTRODUCTION Herbal medicine represents one of the most important fields of traditional medicine all over the world. Medicinal plants are traditionally used for the treatment of pain. Formation of free radicals may play an important role in the origin of life and biological evolution, implying their.
Peganum harmala a été récoltée dans le Sud du Maroc (Sud-Est d'Errachidia) au cours de la période Mars -Avril au stade végétatif et Juin -Juillet au stade de fructification lors de la recrudescence de 1995. L'extrait éthanolique est préparé à partir de 6grammes de feuilles séchées à l'ombre de Peganum harmala L. (stade végétatif ou stade de fructification) et. harmala parts are shown in Table 2. All the data were analysedbyANOVAandt-tests.Diﬀerenceswereconsid-ered to be statistically signiﬁcant at p<0.05. e data in Table2showthattheaceticacid,proline,lysine,sucrose,and vasicinecontentsoftheP.harmalarootsweresigniﬁcantly higherthanthoseoftheotherparts.Inadditiontovasicine Peganum harmala a b s t r a c t In the present work, powdered activated carbon was derived from Peganum harmala seed (PPAC) and then coated by green ZnO nanoparticles and ﬁnally applied for Cr(VI) removal. PPAC was activated using a new physicochemical method in the presence of ultraviolet waves. FESEM showed that PPAC has a high structural.
Dry plant seeds of Peganum harmala L. growing naturally in Mersa Mattrouh, Egypt, were used. Male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) weighing 120-130 g were obtained from an agricultural research center in September2009. The rats were grouped and housed in polyacrylic cages (7 animals per cage) in the animal house of Cairo University's Faculty of Science at 23-25 °C with a 12-h light/12-h. Peganum harmala, also known as harmal or Syrian rue, is used as a traditional herbal remedy (5-7). The pharmacologically active compounds of P. harmala include a number of b-carboline and quinazoline alkaloids. Harmaline, harmine, harmalol, harmol, and tetrahydroharmine have been identified and quantified as the main b-carboline alkaloids in P. harmala extracts. Harmine and harmaline are. Cytotoxicity of alkaloids isolated from Peganum harmala seeds 700 Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.26, No.4, July 2013, pp.699-706 In Morocco, P. harmala seed is used as a powder, decoction, macerate or infusion for treatment of fever, diarrhea, abortion, subcutaneous tumors, and a number o Successive petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Peganum harmala seeds were tested (in vitro) for their antibacterial activity. examine the antibacterial activities of Peganum harmala extracts on the Key words: Antimicrobial effect, Biofilm, Peganum harmala, Pathogenic bacteria Peganum harmala, belonging to Zygophyllaceae family, is a herb with medicinal properties. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of Tunisian Peganum harmala seed extracts obtained by two methods of extraction. The antimicrobial activity was also evaluated. The antioxidant activity of the extracts of Peganum harmala was studied by three different methods, including scavenging activity by.
Peganum harmala is investigated for their potential to synthesize Zinc oxide nanoparticles. Zinc acetate dihydrate was used as a metal solution and it was mixed with plant extracts under vigorous stirring to obtain NPs. Synthesis of ZnO NPs was confirmed by change in color of reactant solution from yellow to white. For further confirmation, various characterization techniques were performed to. Ehsanpour AA, Saadat E. The absorbance was measured, using a microplate reader at nm. There was a problem providing the content you requested. Antibacterial activity of leaf extract of P. K 1 which has been reported previously Antibacteriall et al. Beta-carboline and quinoline alkaloids in root cultures and intact plants of Peganum harmala
Peganum harmala has antibacterial activity, including antibacterial activity against drug-r es i ta nb cte . I al ou d h lm ti (expel parasitic worms). Reportedly the ancient Greeks used powdered Peganum harmala seeds to get rid of ta pew orm snd cu ig f v ( bly malaria).  Peganum harmala is an abortifacient, and, i fleur Peganum harmala Il est plante succulente vivace. devenir boisé avec le temps et se développe jusqu'à 30-60cm. cadeaux feuilles environ 5 cm de long et un peu divisé. la fleurs Ils sont blancs, 5 pétales ,et donner naissance à 2-4 capsules cavitation d'environ 1 cm diamètre
Peganum harmala L. poisoning and pregnancy: two cases in Morocco Achour S.1,2, Saadi H.3, Turcant A.4, Banani A.3, Mokhtari A.2, Soulaymani A.2, Soulaymani Bencheikh R.5,6 1 Laboratoire de toxicologie, CHU Hassan II et faculte ´de medecine et de pharmacie de Fe`s, Maroc 2 Faculte ´des sciences et techniques, universite Ibn-Tofail, Kenitra, Maroc 3 Service de gyne ´cologie-obstetrique, CHU. The carbohydrate complex of the epigeal part ofPeganum harmala L. includes mono- and oligosaccharides, water-soluble polysaccharides, hemicelluloses, and an acidic polysaccharide similar to the pectin substances of higher plants. It is based on a fragment constructed of α-1→4-linked D-galacturonic acid residues in the pyranose form
Peganum harmala, plante endémique des zones semi- arides, se développe dans les zones sahariennes du Nord du continent africain et se prolonge jusqu'au Nord de l'Inde et en Nord de la Chine. Elle est largement utilisée en médecine traditionnelle et en pharmacologie, elle est antimicrobienne (Ahmad et al., 1992; Zaidi & Munir, 1995; Bellakhdar, 1997 ). C. Structures of compounds 1-4 isolated from Peganum harmala . Harmalacidine (1) , Harmine (2) , Peganine (3) , and Vasicinone (4) . 2. Experimental details 2.1. Plant materiel Dried seed of P. harmala were collected from the Figuig region of eastern Morocco, in July and August 2000 and authenticated by Dr Bennabidine, botanist in (Ecole Forestière de Salé). A voucher specimen is preserved in.
Liste des figures Numéro Figure Page 01 Appareil végétatif Peganum harmala L. 07 02 Appareil reproducteur Peganum harmala L. 08 03 Appareil végétatif Portulaca oleracea L. 13 04 Appareil reproducteur Portulaca oleracea L. 14 05 Structure chimique des β-carbolines (harmine, harmane et harmaline) 19 06 B Biosynthèse des β-carolines 19 07 Structure chimique des oméga-3 (ALA, EPA et DHA) 2 Peganum harmala. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Jump to navigation Jump to search. APG IV Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • (unranked): Archaeplastida • Regnum: Plantae • Cladus: angiosperms • Cladus: eudicots • Cladus: core eudicots • Cladus: superrosids • Cladus: rosids • Cladus: eurosids II • Ordo: Sapindales • Familia: Nitrariaceae • Genus. Peganum harmala [pdf booklet], by Gracie & Zarkov. Peganum harmala Pamphlet. RESEARCH & JOURNAL ARTICLES # Medicinal properties of Peganum harmala L in traditional Iranian [...] - 2015. Hepatoprotective activity of Peganum harmala against ethanol-induced liver damages - 2015. Evaluation of the analgesic effect of alkaloid extract of Peganum harmala L - 2008. Syrian rue tea: a recipe for. «Ayahusca» Banisteteriopis caapi, Peganum harmala, Psychotria viridis, Diplopterys cabrerana, Mimosa hostilis, Banisteriopsis rusbyana, harmine, harmaline, tétrahydroharmine (THH), harmol, harmalol » (24) « Toute molécule dérivée du noyau benzofurane : - substituée par un groupement alpha éthylamine quelle que soit sa position sur le noyau benzofurane, que la fonction éthylamine. Background: This review article analyzes the medicinal and remedial properties of Peganum harmala L. [Nitrariaceae] also known as P. harmala, Syrian rue, wild rue, harmal seeds, and Esfand. P. harmala is a medicinal plant and its seeds have been known to alleviate symptoms of diabetes mellitus, depression, and liver damage; seed extracts also have antioxidant and disinfectant properties.
Unlimited viewing of the article/chapter PDF and any associated supplements and figures. Article/chapter can be printed. Article/chapter can be downloaded. Article/chapter can not be redistributed. Check out Abstract. Four alkaloid constituents: harmine, vasicine, vasicinone and harmaline were isolated and characterized from Peganum harmala roots. Harmine showed the best cytotoxicity with IC. . Papers linking to agriculture, chemistry, environmental, and genetics sciences were omitted and, papers centered on cancer were selected. Result and Discussion: In the current study, 42 related papers to cancer treatment and 22 papers. Peganum harmala (Zygophyllaceae) is a medicinal and ornamental plant naturally growing in the southern eastern parts of Asia and Northern Africa . In traditional medicine, P. harmala seeds are used as decoctions, powder and infusion for diarrhea, abortion, asthma, lumbago and other ailments . Most previous investigations on P. harmala studied seed composition and reported high.
En 1837, GOEBEL découvre dans le Peganum harmala deux alcaloïdes : l'harmine et l'harmaline qui sont étudiés par FRITSCHE (1847) puis par FISCHER et TAUBER (1885) et dont MANSKE, PERKIN et ROBINSON réalisent la synthèse. En 1930, SPATH isole la Péganine, déjà découverte sous le nom de Vasicine dans l'Adhaloda Vasica par HOOPER en 1888. Différents auteurs ont étudié par la suite. Peganum harmala on Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Peganum harmala at Encyclopedia of Life Peganum harmala at National Center for Biotechnology Informatio . (Zygophyllaceae) is a traditional medicine used for the treatment of variety of human ailments, including antidepression, hallucination, antileishmaniasis etc. We report for first time the hypoglycemic activity of the ethanolic extract of this plant at two dose levels of 150 and 250mg/kg bw in sucrose challenged normal as well as in rats with streptozotocin induced diabetes.
Harmal: The Genus Peganum is an in-depth treatment of one of the most commanding plants in the botanical kingdom. Humble in appearance, modest in its needs, Peganum harmala has been venerated for millennia as a Deity-manifesting entheogen and a powerful medicine. This book traverses harmal's medicinal chemistry, its possible role in the origins of religion, and its employment from ancient. Nerium oleander L. et Peganum harmala L.) pour tester leurs potentiel allélopathique sur la germination des graines et le développement des plantules des principales mauvaises herbes des cultures des céréales. Trois extraits de différentes concentrations (1%, 3% et 5%) sont préparés à partir des feuilles de chaque espèce. Nous avons testé ces extraits sur 11 espèces de mauvaises. Effect of Peganum harmala on acute Toxoplasmpsis in mice. Daneshvar Med. 2008; 75(15) : 27 -36 8. Arshad N, Zitterl-Eglseer K, Hasnain S, Hess M. Effect of Peganum harmala or its beta-carboline alkaloids on certain antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria and protozoa from poultry. Phytother Res. 2008; 22(11) : 1533 -8 9. Astulla A, Zaima K, Matsuno Y, Hirasawa Y, Ekasari W, Widyawaruyanti A.
Peganum harmala a 4td ricoltie A l'dtat de fructification dans la localiti de Msalit (region de Tata), au Sud du Maroc, au mois de juin (1995). Il est connu que les graines de la plante sont tris toxiques, ils renferment entre 3 A 4% de substances alcaloides.) C'est dans ce sens que les graines ont 6td choisies comme matdriel biologique dans notre 4tude. a-Protocole de preparation.- Les. En Algérie, Le Peganum harmala, est très commune dans le secteur des hauts plateaux d'Atlas Saharien, le Sahara septentrionale, et rare dans le Sahara central ou manque au sud, sauf dans les montagnes du Sahara central (Ozenda, 2004) ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY PEGANUM HARMALA PDF. Posted on November 12, 2020 by admin. Posted In Environment. Download Citation on ResearchGate | Antibacterial activity of Peganum harmala | Successive petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Peganum. Successive petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Peganum harmala seeds were tested (in vitro) for their antibacterial. effect of Peganum harmala (P.harmala) on lipid metabolism and changes Cyp7a1 gene expression in the diet on hypercholesterolemia in male Wistar Rats. Methods: In the present study the effects of P.harmala on lipid metabolism were investigated in a 28-days feeding trial. Total of 64 Rats (200±15) were divided into six groups: (G1 control, G2) control plus 100 mg/kg, G3) control plus 200 mg/kg. Peganum harmala is found growing wild in the middle and northern part of Iraq. The plant is rich in alkaloids and contains up to 4% total alkaloids . The chemical structure of these compouns ds are as shown in Figure 1. Seeds and roots con-tain the highest levels of alkaloids with low levels in stems and leaves ,and absent in flowers. Harmine and har- maline accumulate in dry seeds at 4.3%.
PDF HTML References. Bahmani M, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Parsaei P, Mohsenzadegan A. The anti-leech effect of Peganum harmala L. extract and some anti-parasite drugs on Limnatis nilotica. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2012;6(10):2586-90. Mahmoudian M, Jalipour H, Dardashti PS. Toxicity of Peganum harmala: review and a case report. Iranian Journal of Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2002;1(1):1-4. Moloudizargari. Peganum harmala-L seeds were collected in Arak, Iran. Biomass was air-dried, washed several times with deion-ized water to remove the impurities and then dried in an oven at 105 C for 12 h. Biomass was grounded into powdered form and sieved to the particle size 0.707 mm. Adsorbate A stock solution of 2,000 mg/L of Ni(II) was prepared by dissolving a necessary amount of analytical reagent grade. Peganum harmala var. grandifiorum Hadidi; Synonyms Has 7 Synonyms. KB; Mesembryanthemum caspicum S.G.Gmel. Harmala multifida All. Harmala peganum Crantz; Harmala syriaca Bubani; Peganum dauricum Pall. Peganum rothschildianum Buxb. Peganon harmalum (L.) St.-Lag. Other Data Peganum harmala L. appears in other Kew resources: IPNI - The International Plant Names Index. Herbarium Catalogue (6.
Download as PDF. Cases of Alzheimer Tihkal under the harmaline entry it mentions that the effects of pure harmaline by itself, differ from the effects of Peganum harmala whole seeds. Shulgan wrote, They are very different from one-another. Other researchers concur with Shulgans findings. It has also been noted by experiential researchers that the inhaled effects from Syrian Rue smoke. Peganum Harmala is legal in The Netherlands, as are its isolated constituents. Root bark and other plant material containing dmt is legal in The Netherlands only when said plant material is in unprocessed condition. Dried and/or roughly shredded material is perfectly legal, but powdered material is not and may lead to prosecution (Peganum harmala L.) (Chenopodium album L.) $ # (Portulaca oleracea L.) ! 4 3 3 *2 1 5! ! ! -1 %&' ! ' $ -
Abstract. This archived document is maintained by the Oregon State Library as part of the Oregon Documents Depository Program. It is for informational purposes and may not be suitable for legal purposes.Title from PDF caption (viewed on June 10, 2011)Part of the series Oregon state noxious weed listConverted from HTMLMay 17, 2011.Mode of access: Internet from the Oregon Government. N. N. Sharakhimov, Harmal (Peganum harmala L.). Its biological characteristics and value as a drug, Author's Abstract of Candidate's Dissertation, Tashkent (1975). Google Scholar . 2. Atlas of the Areas and Resources of Medicinal Plants of the USSR [in Russian], Vol. 34, Moscow (1976), p. 218. Google Scholar. 3. Flora of the USSR [in Russian], Vol. 19, Moscow-Leningrad (1953), p. 146. Peganum harmala commonly known as Syrian Rue or Aspand is widely used in middle East and North Africa (1, 2). Various parts of harmala are used in traditional medicine. The pharmacologically active compounds of this herb are several alkaloids, which are found especially in the seeds and roots . It was used as sedative in restless and agitated patients. Its seeds are known to possess. Harmal  (Peganum harmala L. family Zygophyllaceae) is a perennial, glabrous plant which grows spontaneously in semi‑arid conditions, steppe areas and sandy soils, native to eastern Mediterranean region. It is a shrub, 0.3‑0.8 m tall with short creeping roots, white flowers and round seed capsules carrying more than 50 seeds. The plant is well‑known in Iran and is widely distributed. Peganum harmala: | | | | |Peganum harmala| | | World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive.
Peganum harmala L. is widely distributed in the Central Asia, North Africa and Middle East . It is a common medicinal material in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cough, diabetes, depression, hypertension, jaundice, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, and many other human ailments. It has a variety of biological activities, including anti-cance ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY PEGANUM HARMALA PDF. Posted on August 25, 2019 by admin. Download Citation on ResearchGate | Antibacterial activity of Peganum harmala | Successive petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Peganum. Successive petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Peganum harmala seeds were tested (in vitro) for their antibacterial activity. examine the. (Peganum harmala L.) on immunity of broiler chicks. A total of 350 one-day old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments with four replicates pen of 14 birds each. Dietary treatments consisted of control, 1 and 2 g/kg Harmal seed in diet, 100 and 200 mg/L Harmal seed extract in water. Broilers received dietary treatments from 1 to 42 d. Two birds from each.